Papers and publications

Our papers

We gladly share our expertise and experience in the fields of hydrodynamics, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and naval architecture.

Our publications are freely available for download – subject to copyright restrictions, of course!

America’s cup

3332 “Theoretical Estimation of the Influence of Some Main Design Factors on the Performance of International Twelve Meter Class Yachts”

“Theoretical Estimation of the Influence of Some Main Design Factors on the Performance of International Twelve Metre Class Yachts”, by Peter van Oossanen, Published in the Proceedings of the 4th Chesapeake Sailing Yacht Symposium, Annapolis, USA, January 1979, pp. 77-103 (ID No. 3332).

This paper presents the results of a study of the effect of systematically varying length, beam, sail area, draught and stability on the attainable speed of International 12 Metre Class yachts. A notable conclusion of this study is that the optimum length and displacement in wind conditions similar to those in Newport, Rhode Island, during the months of June through September when the America’s Cup was held there, are considerably smaller than those of the yachts that had previously raced for the America’s Cup. This result of this study, in particular, was adopted for choosing waterline length, sail area and displacement for “Australia II”, the yacht that won the America’s Cup in 1983.

4559 “The Development of the 12 Meter Class Yacht ‘Australia II'”

“The Development of the International 12 Metre-Class Yacht Australia II”, by Peter van Oossanen, Published in the Proceedings of the 7th Chesapeake Sailing Yacht Symposium, Annapolis, USA, pp. 81-101, January 1985, (ID No. 4559).

This paper describes the development of the design of the International 12 Metre Class yacht “Australia II” that won the America’s Cup in 1983, as it took place in Wageningen, The Netherlands, in 1981.

4505 “De ontwikkeling van het ontwerp van het 12 m jacht ‘Australia II’ “

De ontwikkeling van het ontwerp van het 12 m jacht ‘Australia II’, Published in “Vademecum van de zeilsport”, September 1985, pp. 1161-1-15 (ID No. 4505).

This paper (in Dutch) describes in brief the work undertaken by the author and co-workers in the development of the design of “Australia II” – the yacht that won the America’s Cup in 1983.

 

4598 “Design and Construction of the America’s Cup Yacht ‘Challenge Australia’ “

“Design and Construction of the America’s Cup Yacht “Challenge Australia”, by Peter van Oossanen, Published in the Proceedings of the 12th International Symposium on “Yacht Design and Yacht Construction”, Amsterdam, 12-13 November 1992, pp. 12-49 (ID No. 4598).

This paper describes the design and construction of “Challenge Australia” the ill-fated Australian challenger for the America’s Cup in 1992. The paper in particular presents the results of investigations into the optimum combination of length, beam, displacement and sail area and explains the benefit of the adopted rotating keel concept. Explanations are given for the disappointing performance of the yacht in San Diego.

5109 “be hAPpy”, condamné à innover”

“be hAPpy”, condamné à innover”, by Peter van Oossanen, Published in “Ingénieurs et Architectes Suisses”, Bulletin Technique de la Suisse Romande, Vol. 126, 19 April 2000, pp.169-173 (ID No. 5109).

This paper (in French) describes the development of the design of “be hAPpy”, the yacht that participated in the challenger series for the America’s Cup in Auckland in 2000.

4630b “America’s Cup Yachts – Recent Design Developments”

“America’s Cup Yachts – Recent Design Developments”, by Peter van Oossanen, Published in the Proceedings of the “Modern Yacht” Conference, organized by the Royal Institution of Naval Architects, 17-18 September 2003, pp. 135-144 (ID No. 4630b).

This paper provides an overview of the trends in the design of International America’s Cup Class (IACC) yachts as these took place in the period between 1992 and 2003 with respect to the design of the hull and its appendages. The trends that are described are those of the decrease in beam on the waterline, the introduction of the knuckle in the bow profile in an attempt to increase effective waterline length, the disappearance of topsides flare, and the various trends in keel geometry aimed at increasing effective span.

5105 “Een bulb in het midden is eigenlijk een onding”

“Een bulb in het midden is eigenlijk een onding”, by Peter van Oossanen, Published in “Zeilen”, No. 12, December 1999, pp. 38-48 (ID No. 5105)

 This article (in Dutch) describes the advantages of dividing the side force development, and the positioning of lead ballast in the form of a bulb attached to the bottom of the keel fin, on an International America’s Cup Class (IACC) yacht into two parts – one located forwards on the hull and the other aft on the hull – rather than in a single keel fin-bulb configuration in the middle of the  hull.

Advanced Marine Vehicles

4495 “Geavanceerde scheepstypen”

“Geavanceerde Scheepstypen”, by Peter van Oossanen, Published in “Schip en Werf”, Vol. 50, No. 4 & 5, 1983 (ID No. 4495).

This paper presents an overview of ship concepts allowing for positioning of the main volume of the hull above or below the water surface, essentially out of reach of surface waves. Such concepts allow for reaching higher speeds and a better performance in waves.

2913 “Advanced Marine Vehicles: A Critical Review”

“Advanced Marine Vehicles: A Critical Review”, by Peter van Oossanen, Published in the Proceedings of the Symposium Celebrating the 25th Anniversary of CETENA, Genoa, Italy, October 1987 (Id No. 2913).

In this paper the main types of advanced marine vehicles are described in terms of their potential with respect to speed, size, required propulsion power, behaviour in a seaway, and cost. The vehicles considered are: small-waterplane twin-hull (SWATH) ships, high-length planing craft with high deadrise, hydrofoil craft with fully submerged foil systems, surface effect ships (SES), and air-cushion vehicles (ACV).

2912 “Characteristics and Relative Merits of Different Vehicle Types”

“Characteristics and Relative Merits of Different Vehicle Types”, by Peter van Oossanen, Published in the Proceedings of the 13th WEGEMT School, 1989 (ID No. 2912)

This paper describes the main types of advanced marine vehicles, including high-speed displacement vessels, in terms of their most important characteristics. These main types are: the Small Waterplane Area Twin Hull (SWATH) ship, fast displacement and planing craft, fast catamarans, Surface Effect Ships (SES), hydrofoils, and air-cushion vehicles (ACV). The most important characteristics covered are size, speed, power, behaviour in a seaway and relative cost.

Cavitation and the Cavitation Performance of Marine Propellers

1944 “Profile Characteristics in Cavitating and Non-Cavitating Flows”

“Profile Characteristics in Cavitating and Non-Cavitating Flows”, by Peter van Oossanen, Published in “Schip en Werf”, Vol. 40, No. 1, pp. 3-11, January 1973 (ID No. 1944).

This paper presents some results of tests with eight propeller-type blade sections in cavitating and non-cavitating flow. A method is presented by which the two-dimensional lift, drag and minimum pressure characteristics of these sections can be predicted in both types of flow.

4463 “Influence of Wake on Propeller Loading and Cavitation”

“Influence of Wake on Propeller Loading and Cavitation”, by Wim van Gent and Peter van Oossanen, Published in “International Shipbuilding Progress”, Vol. , No. 228, 1973 (ID No. 4463).

This paper addresses the interrelation between the characteristics of the wake behind the hull, the adapted propeller design, cavitation, and unsteady propeller loading. The considered wakes are those of a single screw tanker and a twin-screw container vessel, as measured by means of a 5-hole Pitot tube.

4474 “Method for the Assessment of the Cavitation Performance of Marine Propellers”

“Method for the Assessment of the Cavitation Performance of Marine Propellers”, by Peter van Oossanen, Published in “International Shipbuilding Progress”, Vol. 22, No. 245, January 1975 (ID No. 4474).

This paper addresses the assessment of cavitation inception on marine propellers on the basis of the finding that in absence of boundary layer separation cavitation is first seen to occur in the region of laminar-turbulent transition. This result is adopted to derive an approximate relation for the inception location and for the corresponding value of the cavitation number. Results of cavitation studies on hydrofoils are used to then derive a relation for the type and chord-wise extent of cavitation and for the assessment of the influence thereof on lift and drag.

4782 “Theoretical Prediction of Cavitation on Propellers”

“Theoretical Prediction of Cavitation on Propellers”, by Peter van Oossanen, Published in “Marine Technology”, Vol. 14, No. 4, pp. 391-409, October 1977 (ID No. 4782).

This paper describes a method for the theoretical assessment of the occurrence and extent of cavitation on marine propellers.

856 The Choice of Propeller Design Parameters with Respect to Cavitation Control

The Choice of Propeller Design Parameters with Respect to Cavitation Control, by Peter van Oossanen, Published in International Shipbuilding Progress, Vol. 24, No. 178, October 1977 (ID No. 856).

This paper presents the results of a systematic study of how the type and extent of cavitation on marine propellers are influenced by propeller geometry, wake characteristics, and operational parameters.

4483 “Application of Theory in the Optimization of the Propulsion Configuration of a Single-Screw Container Ship”

“Application of Theory in the Optimization of the Propulsion Configuration of a Single-Screw Container Ship”, by Peter van Oossanen and Marinus Oosterveld, Published in the Proceedings of the Symposium on “Practical Design in Shipbuilding”, Tokyo, Japan, pp. 319-328, October 1977 (ID No. 4483).

This paper describes the results of a study of the effect of the number of blades, tip clearance, and propeller diameter on propeller-induced pressure forces on the hull of a single-screw container vessel.

Computational Fluid Dynamics

5396 “Development of Computational Fluid-Structure Interaction Method for Yacht Sails”

“Development of Computational Fluid-Structure Interaction Method for Yacht Sails”, by Friso Bergsma, Niels Moerke and Sebastiaan Zaaijer, Published in the Proceedings of the International Conference on Innovation in High Performance Sailing Yachts (INNOV SAIL 2013), pp. 173-182, 26-28 June 2013, Lorient, France (ID No. 5396).

This paper presents a Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) method for sails based on the RANSE CFD software package FINE/Marine for the calculation of the pressure distribution on the sails, and the Nastran-based Finite Element Analysis (FEA) package FEMAP for the calculation of the deformation of the sails under load.

Design of Hull and Appendages

204 “MARIN-Systematic Series of High-Speed Displacement Ship Hull Forms”

“MARIN-Systematic Series of High-Speed Displacement Ship Hull Forms”, by Peter van Oossanen and Ben Pieffers, Published in “Schip en Werf”, Vol. 55, No. 9/10, May 1988, pp. 197-206 (ID No. 204).

This paper describes the work carried out to define an optimum hull form to serve as a parent for a large series of hull models of which the length-beam ratio, beam-draught ratio, and block coefficient are systematically varied – which models were subsequently tested in calm water and in waves in the towing tank.

4808 “Motor Yacht Hull Form Design for the Displacement to Semi-Displacement Speed Range”

“Motor Yacht Hull Form Design for the Displacement to Semi-Displacement Speed Range”, by Perry van Oossanen, Justus Heimann, Juryk Henrichs and Karsten Hochkirch, Published in the Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Fast Sea Transportation (FAST 2009), Athens, Greece, October 2009, pp. 629-643 (ID No. 4808).

This paper addresses design features that have a large effect on hull resistance. The features that are discussed are: the area of the immersed transom, bulbous bows, trim control, and spray rails. The paper also describes a design methodology for the shape of the bulbous bow based on an optimization scheme employing CFD for determining the effect of bulb shape on resistance. This paper reveals that bulbous bows can also be designed so as to favourably affect resistance at high speeds.

 Design of Marine Propellers

4445 “A Method for Minimizing the Occurrence of Cavitation on Propellers in a Wake”

“A Method for Minimizing the Occurrence of Cavitation on Propellers in a Wake”, by Peter van Oossanen, Published in “International Shipbuilding Progress”, Vol. 18, No. 205, pp. 321-333, September 1971 (ID No. 4445).

Guidelines are presented in this paper on how to improve the cavitation properties of screw propellers operating in the wake of the hull. General rules concerning the choice of propeller diameter, rotational speed, direction of rotation, blade area ratio, radial load distribution, and blade section shaping are considered.

450 “Further Computer-Analysed Data of the Wageningen B-Screw Series”

“Further Computer-Analyzed Data of the Wageningen B-Screw Series”, by Marinus Oosterveld and Peter van Oossanen, Published in “International Shipbuilding Progress”, Vol. 22, No. 251, July 1975 (ID No. 450).

In this paper the open-water characteristics of the Wageningen B-series propellers are given in the form of polynomials for use in preliminary ship design studies. These polynomials were obtained with the aid of a multiple regression analysis of the original open-water test data of the 120 propeller models comprising the B-series. All test results were corrected for the effects of laminar flow by means of the “equivalent profile” method developed by Lerbs. Additional polynomials are given for the scale effect on thrust and torque between model and full scale as derived by the same method.

822 “Trade-Offs in the Design of Sub-Cavitating Propellers”

Trade-Offs in the Design of Sub-Cavitating Propellers”, by Peter van Oossanen, Published in “International Shipbuilding Progress”, Vol. 23, No. 264, August 1976 (ID No. 822).

In this paper an account is presented of the problems involved in the selection of specific values for the design parameters of marine propellers. The views and data presented are of a general nature and illustrate some of the choices involved in the design of a screw propellers such that the extent of cavitation is minimized or controlled.

4525 “Toepassingsonderzoek grote diameter lage toeren schroeven”

“Toepassingsonderzoek grote diameter lage toeren schroeven”, by Peter van Oossanen, Published in “Schip en Werf”, Vol 53, No. 12, pp. 206-214, June 1986 (ID No. 4525).

This paper (in Dutch) addresses the benefits of applying large diameter, low RPM marine propellers. The typical increase in overall efficiency found thereby is identified and explained.

Design of Sailing Yachts

4502a “Design of Racing Yachts”

“Design of Racing Yachts”, by Peter van Oossanen, Published in the Proceedings of the Workshop on Developments in Hull Form Design, Wageningen, The Netherlands, October 1985 (ID No. 4502a).

This review-type paper sets out the main objectives and the many detailed problems posed when designing sailing yachts intended for racing. This paper specifically addresses the design of the hull (its shape), keel, and rudder, since these significantly determine the speed capability of the yacht. The rating rule to which the yacht needs to conform is of importance also and the main aspects thereof are dealt with in the paper.

2075 “The Development of the Winged Keel for Twelve-Metre Yachts”

“The Development of the Winged Keel for Twelve-Metre Yachts”, by Peter van Oossanen and Peter Joubert, Published in the Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Cambridge University Press, Vol. 173, pp 55-71, 1986 (ID No. 2075).

This paper describes the results of a numerical and experimental study of the winged keel originally developed for the International 12 Metre Class yacht “Australia II” that won the America’s Cup in 1983. After some basic considerations with respect to the design of the hull of the subject yacht, the advantageous use of inverse keel taper and the fitting of winglets to the keel is explained. The results of a study in the wind tunnel of the flow around the keel are then provided and discussed.

2235 “Fundamentele overwegingen en ontwerpproblemen bij het ontwerpen van wedstrijdzeiljachten”

“Fundamentele overwegingen en ontwerpproblemen bij het ontwerpen van wedstrijdjachten”, Published in “Vademecum van de Zeilsport”, March 1988, pp. 1120-1-24 (ID No. 2235).

This paper (in Dutch) describes some of the fundamental problems in designing sailing yachts intended for racing. Specifics subject dealt with are the determination of lift and drag of hull and appendages, the problem of needing to adhere to the requirements of the design- or rating rule, the determination of the wind speed and sea conditions for which the yacht needs to specifically excel, the use of VPP software in the design process, etc.

2236 “Optimizing the Performance of Keels for Sailing Yachts”

“Optimizing the Performance of Keels for Sailing Yachts”, by Peter van Oossanen, Published in “Schip en Werf”, Vol. 55, No. 14, pp. 281-287, July 1988 (ID No. 2236).

This paper presents the considerations involved in designing a keel for a sailing yacht – specifically with respect to the requirements posed by the design constraints of the International 12 Metre Class measurement rule.

4506 “Het ontwerpen van de romp”

“Het ontwerpen van de romp”, by Peter van Oossanen, Published in “Vademecum van de zeilsport”, June 1988, pp. 1130-1-23 (ID No. 4506).

This paper (in Dutch) describes the process involved in choosing the main design variables of the hull of sailing yachts such as length, displacement (and the amount of ballast), beam, sail area, prismatic coefficient and longitudinal position of the centre of buoyancy.

5736 “Het ontwerpen van kiel en roer”

“Het ontwerpen van kiel en roer”, by Peter van Oossanen, Published in “Vademecum van de zeilsport”, July 1988, pp. 1140-1-30 (ID No. 5736).

This paper (in Dutch) describes the process involved in choosing the main design variables of the keel and the rudder of sailing yachts such as: lateral area, aspect ratio, taper ratio, sweep angle, section shape, etc. The application of winglets on keels and rudders to augment side force and reduce drag is also covered.

5101 “De juiste kiel”

“De juiste kiel”, by Peter van Oossanen, Published in “Waterkampioen”, Part 1 in June  and Part 2 in July, 1996 (ID No. 5101).

After an explanation of the function and working principles of keels in general, this paper (in Dutch) reviews the many types of keels that have been devised for sailing yachts and rates them in a relative sense with respect to the contribution they provide to righting moment (stability), to side force (in counteracting leeway), to directional stability (as in their effect on steering behaviour), with respect to the drag they cause, with respect to the draught (span) they require, and with respect to their cost.

4630a “A Concept Exploration Model for Sailing Yachts”

“A Concept Exploration Model for Sailing Yachts”, by Perry van Oossanen, Published in the Proceedings of the “Modern Yacht” Conference, organized by the Royal Institution of Naval Architects, 17-18 September 2003, pp. 135-144 (ID No. 4630a).

This paper presents the results of a first study into the feasibility of developing a Concept Exploration Model (CEM) for sailing yachts and a case study for a specific project involving the design of a 44 foot cruising yacht. The CEM is used to generate and evaluate a large number of designs and to derive a concept design that best fits a certain set of performance criteria.

Hull Vane®

The effects of the Hull Vane® on ship motions of ferries and RoPax vessels

This paper discusses research into the seakeeping aspects of the Hull Vane® on larger (RoPax) vessels. Results from tank tests of the 167 meter container vessel Rijnborg and CFD computations on the 167 meter RoPax vessel Norbank will be shown and discussed. These results show that both the pitch motion and the added resistance due to waves can also be effectively reduced by applying a Hull Vane® on larger vessels.

A CFD computation of the RoPax vessel in 2.5 meter waves showed a pitch reduction of 4.9%, and a reduction of the wave-induced added resistance of 4.5%. The Rijnborg was model tested in different regular wave systems, with and without Hull Vane®. All tests in regular waves showed a reduction of the pitch motion, on average by 11,4%. Model tests in ice were done at Arctech Helsinki. This research was at first presented at the RINA Ferries & RoPax Conference in London, in 2015.

5512  “Brandstofbesparende spoiler”

 “Brandstofbesparende spoiler”, by Peter van Oossanen, Published in SWZ Maritime, Vol. 134, November 2013 (ID No. 5512).

This article (in Dutch) explains the physics behind the Hull Vane®, the work undertaken to develop the device to its present configuration, and the results of its application to various merchant ships and motor yachts.

5355 “Ontwikkeling van de Hull Vane®”

“Ontwikkeling van de Hull Vane®”, by Peter van Oossanen, Published in Jaarboek der Scheepsbouwkundig Gezelschap “William Froude” 2012-2013, January 2014 (ID No. 5355).

This article (in Dutch) presents how the Hull Vane® came to be about and the early days of its development.

 

5509 “An Update on the Development of the Hull Vane®”

“An Update on the Development of the Hull Vane®”, by Kasper Uithof, Peter van Oossanen, Niels Moerke, Perry van Oossanen and Sebstiaan Zaaijer, Published in the Proceeedings of the 9th International Conference on High-Performance Marine Vehicles (HIPER 2014), Athens, Greece, 3-5 December 2014 (ID No. 5509).

This paper traces the development of the Hull Vane® from its early days to 2014, providing data on the fuel consumption saves on a host of vessels.

5455 “A Life-Cycle Cost Analysis of the Application of a Hull Vane® to an Offshore Patrol Vessel”

“A Life-Cycle Cost Analysis of the Application of a Hull Vane® to an Offshore Patrol Vessel”, by Bruno Bouckaert, Kasper Uithof, Perry van Oossanen, Niels Moerke, Bart Nienhuis and Jan van Bergen, Published in the Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Fast Sea Transportation (FAST 2015), Washington, USA, 1-4 September 2015, pp. 629-643 (ID No. 5455).

This paper presents the results of applying a Hull Vane® to a Holland Class 108 m ocean-going patrol vessel of the Royal Netherlands Navy. These results reveal that an annual reduction in the fuel consumed of 12.5% can be obtained when a Hull Vane® is fitted. At the speed (17.5 knots) at which the fuel consumption is greatest a saving of 15.3% is achieved.

5701 “Hull Vane® ESD on DTMB 5415 Destroyer: A CFD Analysis of the Effect on Resistance”

“Hull Vane® ESD on DTMB 5415 Destroyer: A CFD Analysis of the Effect on Resistance”, by Kasper Uithof, Bruno Bouckaert, Niels Moerke and Perry van Oossanen, Published in the Proceedings of the MAST Conference, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 21-23 June 2016 (ID No. 5701).

This paper describes the study of the effect of adding a Hull Vane® to the stern of the DTMB 5415 hull on resistance.

5702 “A Systematic Comparison of the Influence of the Hull Vane®, Interceptors, Trim Wedges, and Ballasting on the Performance of the 50 m AMECRC Series #13 Patrol Vessel”

A Systematic Comparison of the Influence of the Hull Vane®, Interceptors, Trim Wedges, and Ballasting on the Performance of the 50 m AMECRC Series #13 Patrol Vessel”, by Kasper Uithof, Nils Hagemeister, Bruno Bouckaert, Perry van Oossanen and Niels Moerke, Published in the Proceedings of the Conference on Advanced Technologies in Naval Design, Construction, & Operation (Warship 2016), Bath, England, 15-16 June 2016 (ID No. 5702).

This paper describes the results of a study into the relative merits of the Hull Vane®, interceptors, trim wedges and ballasting in reducing the running trim and the associated resistance at different speeds. Whereas all four devices and methods for obtaining the optimum running trim are shown to yield reductions in resistance, the application of the Hull Vane® on the subject hull is shown to the most favourable.

5735 “A Cost-Benefit Analysis of Hull Vane® Application on Motor Yachts”

“A Cost-Benefit Analysis of Hull Vane® Application on Motor Yachts”, by Kasper Uithof, Bruno Bouckaert, Perry van Oossanen and Niels Moerke, Published in the Proceedings of the 24th HISWA Symposium, 14-15 November 2016, Amsterdam, The Netherlands (ID No. 5735).

The effectiveness of the Hull Vane® in reducing fuel consumption – and hence in reducing overall running cost – is the subject of this paper. Other considerations of applying the Hull Vane® to the stern of motor yachts are also described, particularly in terms of lay-out, seakeeping performance, and maneuverability.

5746 “Hull Vane™ Versus Lengthening”

“Hull VaneTM Versus Lengthening”, by N. Hagemeister, K. Uithof, B. Bouckaert & A. Mikelic, Published in the Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on “Fast Sea Transportation (FAST 2017)”, Nantes, France, 27-29 September 2017 (ID NO.5746)

This paper addresses the results of a CFD study into the effectiveness of the Hull VaneTM in reducing the resistance of the hull in comparison with the effect on resistance of increasing the hull length by an amount equal to the distance the Hull VaneTM extends aft of the transom. These calculations were carried out for a 61 m offshore patrol vessel. The results show that for the given operational profile of the vessel the Hull VaneTM offers a more beneficial option.

Hydrodynamic Aspects of Propeller Cavitation-Induced Ship Vibrations and Noise

842 “Vibratory Hull Forces Induced by Cavitating Propellers”

“Vibratory-Hull Forces Induced by Cavitating Propellers”, by Peter van Oossanen and Jan van der Kooy, Published in the Transactions of the Royal Institution of Naval Architects, Vol. 115, pp. 111-144, 1973 (ID No. 842).

The subject of this paper is the effect of cavitation as manifested on marine propellers on the vibratory forces acting on the hull above. This effect is studied on the basis of the results of tests with a systematic series of propellers in the cavitation tunnel. The results reveal that the occurrence of cavitation on the blades of marine propellers significantly increases the vibratory forces on the hull.

4473a “Achtergronden van de hydrodynamische excitatie”

“Achtergronden van de Hydrodynamische Excitatie”, by Peter van Oossanen, Published in “Schip en Werf”, Vol. 44, No. 17, pp. 515-524, August 1977 (ID No. 4473a).

This paper (in Dutch) addresses the origin and nature of the vibratory forces on the aft-body of the hull of ships as caused by the operating propeller.

4484a “Hydro-Acoustic Design Aspects of Cavitating Propellers”

“Hydroacoustic Design Aspects of Cavitating Propellers”, by Peter van Oossanen and Albert Stuurman, Published in the Proceedings of the Joint ASCE-IAHR/AIRH-ASME Symposium on “Design and Operation of Fluid Machinery”, 12-14 June 1978, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA, pp. 511-521 (ID No. 4484a).

In this paper it is shown that the acoustic source level of cavitating ship propellers can be divided into two distinct regions when considering the mechanism responsible for the observed noise levels. Below about 50 to 100 Hz, the variation in the volume of the cavities on the blades is largely responsible for the levels in radiated noise at frequencies corresponding to the first 5 harmonics of the blade rate. At frequencies above about 100 Hz the collapse phenomena of individual cavities is largely responsible for the level in radiated noise.

4476 “Some Hydrodynamic Considerations of Propeller-Induced Ship Vibrations”

“Some Hydrodynamic Considerations of Propeller-Induced Ship Vibrations”, By Schelte Hylarides and Peter van Oossanen, Published in the Proceedings of the SNAME Symposium on Ship Vibration, Arlington, Virginia, USA, 16-17 October 1978 (ID No. 4476).

This paper presents a survey of some hydrodynamic aspects associated with propeller-induced ship vibrations – specifically the effects of the wake and its structure in which the propeller operates. The paper reveals that it is possible to modify this structure (by introducing a partial tunnel to the stern for channeling the flow in the upper region of the propeller disc) to eliminate some of the greatest inhomogeneity, thereby attaining lower vibration-excitation levels.

Hydrofoil craft

5553 “Controlling the Ride Height of Hydro-Foiling Boats in RANSE CFD”

“Controlling the Ride Height of Hydro-Foiling Boats in RANSE CFD”, by Friso Bergsma, Sebastiaan Zaaijer and Niels Moerke, Published in the Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on High-Performance Marine Vehicles (HIPER 2014), Athens, Greece, 3-5 December 2014 (ID No. 5553).

For obtaining the optimum performance of craft supported on foils it is important for those craft to be able to possess a low “take-off” speed (the speed at which the hull is lifted out of the water) and to then maintain ride height (above the water) and running attitude, by controlling the angle of attack of the foils. This paper presents a method to perform simulations of the take-off behaviour of such craft in RANSE CFD, thereby providing a procedure for investigating the merits of different hull and foil geometries.

Model testing

843 “Cavitation Testing of Marine Propellers”

“Cavitation Testing of Marine Propellers”, by Peter van Oossanen, Published in “Schip en Werf”, Vol. 39, No. 13 and 14, 1972 (ID No. 843).

This paper presents a review of the many problems associated with ship model testing, in particular in regard to the study of cavitation on marine propellers. After presenting some basic considerations on the occurrence of cavitation and its effects on marine propellers, the general problem of obtaining cavitation similarity in model testing is described. An account is given of the methods employed in propeller testing in cavitation tunnels and the scale effects that will then appear.

2167 “Design of a Dynamometer for Testing Yacht Models”

“Design of a Dynamometer for Testing Yacht Models”, by Charles Gommers and Peter van Oossanen, Published in the Proceedings of the 20th American Towing Tank Conference, Hoboken, New Jersey, USA, August 1983 (ID No. 2167).

This paper describes a testing system allowing for the measurement of the drag and side force of a sailing yacht model in the towing tank, at a prescribed forward speed, such that the model is free to adopt leeway, and to freely heel and to trim, such that the forces and moments imposed on the model by the force acting at right angles to the towing mast, at a height equivalent to the height of the centre of force on the sails, are in equilibrium with the hydrodynamic forces and moments acting on hull, keel and rudder. This technique allows for the true simulation of the actual behaviour of sailing yachts on model scale.

4526 “Use of the Towing Tank in the Design of Racing Sailing Yachts”

“Use of the Towing Tank in the Design of Racing Sailing Yachts”, by Peter van Oossanen, Published in the Proceedings of the Symposium “Societa di Navigazione”, Naples, Italy, 26-27 June 1986, pp. 99-118 (ID No. 4526).

In this paper a description is given of the model test technique adopted at MARIN for evaluating the performance of models of sailing yachts. This paper also addresses the procedure adopted by the author for the extrapolation of model results to the full-scale yacht.

Performance Prediction of Sailing Yachts

3710 “A Method for the Calculation of Resistance and Side Force of Sailing Yachts”

“A Method for the Calculation of Resistance and Side Force of Sailing Yachts”, by Peter van Oossanen, Published in the Proceedings of the Conference on “Calculator and Computer-Aided Design for Small Craft”, Royal Institution of Naval Architects, Southampton, 31st-March-1st April 1981 (ID No. 3710).

In this paper a method for the approximate calculation of the resistance (drag) and side force of sailing yachts is described. The subject formulations are suited for use in Velocity Prediction Programs.

3711 “Predicting the Speed of Sailing Yachts”

“Predicting the Speed of Sailing Yachts”, by Peter van Oossanen, Published in the Proceedings of the 1993 Annual Meeting of the Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers, Vol. 101, pp. 337-397 (ID No. 3711).

This paper presents an overview of the methodology involved in predicting the speed of sailing yachts according to the three methods that are available, viz.: by model testing, by calculation using a Velocity Prediction Program (VPP), and numerically using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The paper presents the state-of-the-art as it was in 1992 and although the paper is still representative for the manner in which speed assessment is carried out through model testing and VPP, this is not the case with respect to CFD which has since the year 2000 become much more accurate and accessible.

Resistance and Propulsion

847 “Het voortstuwen van schepen”

“Het Voortstuwen van Schepen”; by Peter van Oossanen and Marinus Oosterveld, Published in “Natuur en Techniek”, Vol. 45, No. 8, pp. 516-535, 1977 (ID No. 847).

This is a general paper (in Dutch) addressing general aspects of model testing, and the reasons for needing model tests in certain instances for determining the resistance and propulsion characteristics of ship hulls.

449 ”Resistance Prediction of Small High-Speed Displacement Vessels: State of the Art”

“Resistance Prediction of Small High-Speed Displacement Vessels – State of the Art”, by Peter van Oossanen, Published in “International Shipbuilding Progress”, Volume 27, No. 313, pp. 212-224, September 1980 (ID No. 449).

For estimating the resistance of the hull in the preliminary stage of a design project use is often made of the results of model tests with systematically-varying hull forms. This paper presents the results of some of these model series in a new and consistent manner allowing for comparison of the results. In addition, this paper presents a summary of available empirical and statistically-derived expressions for hull form drag.

1862 “Hydrodynamic Resistance Characteristics of Humans, Dolphins and Ship Forms”

“Hydrodynamic Resistance Characteristics of Humans, Dolphins and Ship Forms”, by Peter van Oossanen, Published in “Schip en Werf”, Vol. 55, No. 24, November 1988, pp. 501-510 (ID No. 1862).

This paper presents an overview of research carried out at the Maritime Research Institute Netherlands (MARIN) on the subject of human swimming. The results obtained of an experimental study of the drag properties of a bottle-nosed dolphin are also reviewed. The drag characteristics of humans and dolphins as obtained from these studies are then compared to those of different ship forms in order to obtain a quantitative impression of the performance of the human body in this respect.

Stability

4599 “Investigation of Minimum Stability Requirements for Ballasted, Mono-Hull Sailing Craft”

“Investigation of the Minimum Stability Requirements for Ballasted, Mono-Hull Sailing Craft”, by Peter van Oossanen, Published in the Proceedings of the 13th International Symposium on “Yacht Design and Yacht Construction”, Amsterdam, 14-15 November 1994, pp. 41-74 (ID No. 4599).

This paper addresses documented casualties in an attempt to identify potentially dangerous stability characteristics in the case of mono-hull sailing yachts. The results thereof are used to distinguish unacceptable levels of stability in terms of the minimum value of the heel angle at which the righting moment is zero (the angle of vanishing stability), and the value of the righting moment at a heel angle of 90 degrees. A description is then given of the development of the so-called Dynamic Stability Factor in which the author participated, which factor was later introduced in ISO standard 12217-2.

5097 “Stability of Sailing Craft – Investigation of Minimum Stability Requirements for Ballasted, Mono-Hull Sailing Craft”

“Stability of Sailing Craft – Investigation of Minimum Stability Requirements for Ballasted, Mono-Hull Sailing Craft”, by Peter van Oossanen, Published in “Schip en Werf de Zee”, Part 1 in December 1994 and Part 2 in April 1995 (ID No. 5097)

This paper presents the results of an investigation of the necessary stability properties of mono-hull sailing yachts for incorporation in ISO standard 12217-2. Specific attention is focused on the development of the so-called Dynamic Stability Factor – the factor that was later to be designated as the Stability Index (STIX).

4565 “Development of Proposed ISO 12217 Single Stability Index for Mono-Hull Sailing Craft”

“Development of Proposed ISO 12217 Stability Index for Mono-Hull Sailing Craft”, by Peter van Oossanen, Published in the Proceedings of the 13th Chesapeake Sailing Yacht Symposium, Annapolis, USA, January 1997, pp. 97-119 (ID No. 4565).

This paper describes the work that was carried out in developing the minimum requirement for the angle of vanishing stability, the righting moment at 90 degrees of heel, and the area below the righting moment curve, for mono-hull sailing craft, for implementation in ISO 12217-2. In addition the paper describes and defines the individual factors that compose the Single Stability Index (STIX) in the first version of the standard

Traditional Dutch Lee-Board Yachts

5108 “De ‘IJsvogel’ te water”

“De ‘IJsvogel’ te water”, by Peter van Oossanen, Published in “De spiegel der zeilvaart”, Vol. 24, No. 2, March 2000, pp. 12-15 (ID No. 5108).

This paper (in Dutch) describes the first of a series of 16.7 m Lemsteraken designed by the author and his co-workers.

5104 “Onderzoek naar de zeilprestaties van Lemsteraken”

“Onderzoek naar de zeilprestaties van Lemsteraken”, by Peter van Oossanen, Published in “Spiegel der zeilvaart”, Vol. 25, No. 9, November 2001, pp. 7-15 (ID No. 5104).

This paper (in Dutch) describes the model tests carried out in the towing tank and in the wind tunnel for the design of a series of Lemsteraken, a traditional lee-board yacht used for cruising and racing in the Netherlands. The results of the wind tunnel tests for evaluating the performance of different combinations of sails varying in area, and design, form the primary subject of the paper

5112 “Stabiliteit en drijfvermogen van ronde- en platbodemjachten”

“Stabiliteit en drijfvermogen van ronde- en platbodemjachten”, by Peter van Oossanen and Niels Moerke, Published in “Spiegel der zeilvaart”, Vol. 26, No. 10, December 2002/January 2003 (ID No. 5112).

This paper (in Dutch) presents the results of a study of the flotation and stability properties of traditional lee-board yachts of the type “Lemsteraak”. The study was aimed at means to increase the angle of vanishing stability, the righting moment at 90 degrees of heel, and the flooding characteristics after water ingress, so that the resulting stability characteristics of these yachts comply with the requirements of ISO 12217-2.

5122 “Optimalisatie van het Skutsje ‘Elisabeth’“

“Optimalisatie van het Skutsje ‘Elisabeth’ “, by Peter van Oossanen and Niels Moerke, Published in “Spiegel der zeilvaart”, Vol. 28, February 2004, pp. 7-15 (ID No. 5122).

This paper (in Dutch) presents the results of a study of the sailing performance of a traditional Dutch lee-board yacht of the type referred to as a Skutsje.

5121 “De stroming rond een Lemsteraak”

“De stroming rond een Lemsteraak”, by Peter van Oossanen and Niels Moerke, Published in “Spiegel der zeilvaart”, Vol. 31, April 2007, pp. 7-11 (ID No. 5121).

This paper (in Dutch) presents the results of a study of the flow around the hull and its appendages of a Lemsteraak by means of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD).

5120 “ ‘Nynke’ uitgesloten van de IFKS”

“Nynke uitgesloten van de IFKS”, by Niels Moerke and Peter van Oossanen, Published in “Spiegel der zeilvaart”, Vol. 31, December 2007/January 2008, pp. 7-14 (ID No. 5120).

This paper (in Dutch) questions the decision in 2007 to disallow participation of the Skutsje “Nynke” in the races organized by the IFKS organization, on the basis of technical facts and reasoning.

Velocity Prediction Programs (VPP)

4564 “Improvement of Sailing Yacht Performance Prediction by Including Force-Moment Equilibrium for the Calculation of Helm Angle in a Velocity Prediction Program”

“Improvement of Sailing Yacht Performance Prediction by Including Force-Moment Equilibrium for the Calculation of Helm Angle in a Velocity Prediction Program”, by Peter van Oossanen, Published in the Proceedings of the 12th Chesapeake Sailing Yacht Symposium, Annapolis, USA, January 1995, pp. 145-155 (ID No. 4564).

This paper addresses the improvement in accuracy obtained in predicting the performance of sailing yachts when a fourth equilibrium condition is added to the calculation process of a Velocity Prediction Program (VPP). The paper addresses the added complexity of this fourth condition which requires that the angle of attack of appendages that rotate about a vertical axis (when the yacht is upright) be determined from this equilibrium condition – for example, the helm angle when this only entails a rudder.

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